State Kirchhoff’s

i. voltage law

ii. current law

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Kirchhoff’s laws are two fundamental laws of circuit analysis that can be used to analyze and solve electrical circuits. These laws are:

Kirchhoff’s voltage law (KVL):This law states that the sum of the voltage drops around a closed loop in a circuit is equal to the sum of the voltage rises around the same loop. Mathematically, this can be expressed as:\sum V_i = 0

Where V is the voltage at each node in the circuit. This law is based on the conservation of energy, which states that the total energy in a closed system must remain constant.

Kirchhoff’s current law (KCL):This law states that the sum of the currents entering a node in a circuit is equal to the sum of the currents leaving the same node. Mathematically, this can be expressed as:\sum I_i = 0

Where I is the current at each branch in the circuit. This law is based on the conservation of charge, which states that the total charge in a closed system must remain constant.